In December 2015, 196 governments agreed in Paris to jointly address the threat of climate change. While the Paris Agreement does not explicitly specify the role of agriculture in reducing global emissions, it does provide opportunities for mitigation and adaptation, and its preamble makes it clear that the international community must address the effects of climate change on agriculture in order to build resilience and improve food security around the world. In concrete terms, the agreement commits to “keep the increase in the average global temperature at a level well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to continue efforts to limit the increase in temperature to 1.5 degrees Celsius.” The agricultural sector is taking steps to prepare for these effects and develop more resistant crops. These strategies focus on a smarter and more sustainable use of resources. B such as the diversification of plant varieties and changes in soil farming practices to improve farm productivity. Basically, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) describes a framework of resistance, resilience and transformation strategies in agricultural management. This approach encourages farmers to develop resistance methods such as resistance to resistance to pollution caused by climate change. In the longer term, the framework calls for farmers to take resilience measures, such as smarter irrigation practices, which will ultimately lead to the creation of an agricultural sector capable of prospering despite the increasing pressures of climate change. The expansion of intensive agriculture risks jeopardizing the world`s chances of meeting the conditions of the Paris agreement on the climate crisis, as the increasing use of artificial fertilizers and the increase in livestock population push the concentration of a major greenhouse gas to levels well above their levels.
For Africa to be able to address issues related to agriculture and climate change, it is essential to promote initiatives to improve adaptation, increase food productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the sector. The African Union and the continent`s negotiating bodies in global discussions on climate change stressed that adaptation to climate change remains a priority for the continent. Malabo`s 2014 declaration on accelerating agricultural growth and processing for shared prosperity and improved livelihoods provides a vision of Africa`s response to the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector. The Malabo Declaration stresses the need to improve the resilience of livelihoods and production systems to climate fluctuations and other related risks. The Malabo declaration predicts that by 2025, at least 30% of African farms, pastorals and fishermen will be resistant to climate and weather risks. Hanqin Tian, a professor at Auburn University in the United States and lead author of the study, said: “The main driver of the increase is agriculture and the growing demand for food and feed will further increase global emissions of particulate gases. There is a conflict between how we feed people and the stabilization of the climate. With the Paris Agreement, world leaders have pledged to combat greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of climate change. Agriculture has enormous potential in the fight against climate change. While the United States and countries around the world are striving to harness this potential, mitigation must be coupled with strategies to adapt agriculture to the pressures of climate change and make the agricultural sector itself more sustainable and resilient.